13 800-826-3045 FASTENER TECH “H” beam-deformed. Total translation contours. For loading in tension due to acceleration forces at 8000 RPM There are literally hundreds of standards and specifications. For all types of applications, from bridges to spaceships. None are, however, as critical as those required for real-world motorsports applications. In an environment where lighter is faster there is clearly no room for redundancy systems, like those found in military and aerospace applications. The mere nature of Motorsports requires designers to produce fasteners that are light; yet produce toughness, fatigue and reliability factors that extend far beyond other acknowledged application standards. The design and production of fasteners, exclusively for racing, clearly involves many complex factors. Some so special no standards or design criteria exist; and so everyone at ARP is totally dedicated to the development and analysis of appropriate bolt designs exclusively for special applications. Designs that take into account the special loads and endurance that must be carried, the material selection, processing, and the methods of installation that will continue to deliver ARP quality and reliability. The focus of the following material, prepared by the ARP engineering staff, could be called: “MOTORSPORTS FASTENER ENGINEERING for the NON-ENGINEER.” It is hoped that by providing an overview of the engineering, design and production forces ARP applies daily, you – as the end user – will be better equipped to evaluate your initial fastener requirements, effectiveness and performance. DESIGN PROCEDURES for AUTOMOTIVE BOLTS Presented by Dr. Kenneth Foster, PhD The design of automotive bolts is a complex process, involving a multitude of factors. These include the determination of oper- ating loads and the establishment of geometric configuration. The process for connecting rod bolts is described in the following paragraphs as an example. The first step in the process of designing a connecting rod bolt is to determine the load that it must carry. This is accomplished by calculating the dynamic force caused by the oscillating piston and connecting rod. This force is determined from the classical concept that force equals mass times acceleration. The mass includes the mass of the piston plus a portion of the mass of the rod. This mass undergoes oscillating motion as the crankshaft rotates. The resulting acceleration, which is at its maximum value when the piston is at top dead center and bottom dead center, is proportional to the stroke and the square of the engine speed. The oscillating force is sometimes called the reciprocating weight. Its numerical value is proportional to: It is seen that the design load, the reciprocating weight, depends on the square of the RPM speed. This means that if the speed is doubled, for example, the design load is increased by a factor of 4. This relationship is shown graphically below for one particular rod and piston. A typical value for this reciprocating weight is in the vicinity of 20,000 lbs. For purposes of bolt design, a “rule of thumb” is to size the bolts and select the material for this application such that each of the 2 rod bolts has a strength of approximately 20,000 lbs. (corresponding to the total reciprocating weight). This essentially builds in a nominal safety factor of 2. The stress is calculated according to the following formula: so that the root diameter of the thread can be calculated from the formula: This formula shows that the thread size can be smaller if a stronger material is used. Or, for a given thread size, a stronger material will permit a greater reciprocating weight. The graph (see page 14) shows the relationship between thread size and material strength. It must be realized that the direct recipro- cating load is not the only source of stresses in bolts. A secondary effect arises because of the flexibility of the journal end of the connecting rod. The reciprocating load causes bending deformation of the bolt- ed joint (yes, even steel deforms under load). This deformation caus- es bending stresses in the bolt as well as in the rod itself. These bend- ing stresses fluctuate

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