2023 ARP Catalog

16 heading produces a better product than hot heading, and vice versa. The number and force of the blows of the cold heading machine can make a significant difference in the quality of the end product. Excessive numbers of blows can lead to voids in the bolt head. ARP, in fact, holds significant patents on cold heading procedures for the higher nickel and cobalt based alloys. In a typical aerospace manufacturing process, these alloys are hot headed from bars, reduced in diameter from 48 to 50% by cold drawing, resulting in a hardness of about Rockwell C46 which is too hard for cold heading. So, the blanks are locally induction heated in a very narrow temperature envelope and hot headed. If care is not taken the process can reduce the hardness of the bolt head and the area immediately under it as much as 3 to 5 points on the Rockwell C scale. Subsequent heat-treatment does not restore this partially annealed area to full hardness and strength. Therefore, the final result can be a relatively soft headed bolt. This process is not preferred by ARP. Our patented process begins with a softer wire that can be cold forged. The process work hardens the head and the under head area to the desired hardness. We then power extrude the front end to achieve the reduction and hardness in the shank resulting in a bolt with even strength and hardness from end to end. The same is true of thread rolling. Temperature and die speed must be controlled and changed for different alloys. Many bolt manufacturers who meet the Aerospace Specifications don’t come close to meeting our standards. We consistently go beyond standard aerospace specs. Our concern with the manufacturing processes extends to the details of heat-treating, shot-peening, fillet rolling and grinding – down to the frequency of dressing the grinding wheels. In the arena where aerospace standards are a starting point and random failures are unacceptable, I feel ARP stands alone as a primary engineering and manufacturing source for specialty and custom fasteners for use in motorsports. It is important to realize that simply quoting an AMS (Aerospace Material Specification) number without strength and percentage of elongation numbers is meaningless. Statements that the use of a particular material will, in itself, result in extreme strength and resistance to fatigue can be misleading. In the world of high strength alloys, whether they are used for bolts or for landing gears, the manufacturing processes are at least as important as the material specification. Some in our industry claim to inspect materials at the “molecular” level. In metallurgical terms, molecules are not necessarily part of the vocabulary. Our engineers tell us that talking about molecules is misleading. When reference is made to metal, it is typically in terms of atom structures. We routinely check metallurgical features microscopically. By the way, the same is true for claims of manufacturing to “zero tolerance.” “Our engineers tell us that this is technically unrealistic.” FASTENER TECH