2022 ARP Catalog

27 13. How do the space lattice or crystal structures appear? All grains or crystals are composed of atoms bound together in a definite pattern. These structures are called space lattice or crystal structures. At a fixed temperature, the atoms in an array are spaced a definite distance from one another, although they vibrate about their mean position. Even though atoms are actually not held together in this manner, it is helpful to picture the crystals as a 3-dimensional latticework connected by imaginary lines. Metallurgists who primarily study ferrous metal are interested in only two basic crystal structures: bcc (body-centered cubic) and fcc (face-centered cubic). 14. What are the metallurgical ramifications of “cold heading” vs. “hot heading?” Cold heading is a more efficient process and allows the part to be cold worked. The tem- peratures used for hot forging will reduce the effect of work hardening. This is important for metals which derive much of their strength from the cold work. Cold heading produces a better product than hot heading. The number and force of the blows of the cold heading machine can make a significant difference in the quality of the end product. Excessive num- bers of blows can lead to voids in the bolt head. ARP, in fact, holds significant patents on cold heading procedures for the higher nickel and cobalt based alloys. Our patented process begins with a cold drawn wire that can be cold forged. The process work hardens the head and the under head area to the desired hardness. We then power extrude the front end to achieve the reduction and hardness in the shank resulting in a bolt with even strength and hard- ness from end to end. In a typical aerospace manufacturing process, these alloys are hot headed from bars, reduced in diameter from 48 to 50% by cold drawing, result- ing in a hardness of about Rockwell C46 which is too hard for cold heading. So, the blanks are locally induction heated in a very narrow temperature enve- lope and hot headed. The process reduces the hardness immediately in the area under the head approximately 3 to 5 points on the Rockwell C scale. Subsequent heat treatment does not restore this partially annealed area to full hardness and strength. The final result is a rela- tively soft-headed bolt. Therefore, this process is not used by ARP. 15. What is the difference between the usage of “bar” material vs. “wire?” Bars produced by the mill in straight sections are normally shipped in 12 foot lengths. Wire is supplied in continuous coil form and is hundreds of feet in length. Bars are cut to length and the bolts are hot forged from these lengths. Wire on the other hand is fed into a cold header in a continuous manner. 16. What exactly is A286? And to what is it compared? A286 is a 25% nickel and 18% chromium alloy with smaller amounts of titanium and alu- minum, which precipitate during aging – after solution treatment. It is a true stainless steel Metallurgy for the Non-Engineer FASTENER TECH

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